According to Hindu scriptures, all mortal beings are destined to pass through four great epochs in every cycle of creation and destruction. This divine cycle turns full-circle at the end of what is known as kalpa. A kalpa is a yuga cycle, which is a period of 10,000 divine years, and is divided into four ages or yugas (Sanskrit yuga = age/epoch). According to one calculation, one yuga cycle is estimated to be 4,320,000 years, and one kalpa 4,320,000,000 years.
About the 4 Yugas
The four great epochs in Hinduism are: Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dwapar Yuga and Kali Yuga. Satya Yug or the Age of Truth is said to last for four thousand divine years, Treta Yuga for three thousand, Dwapara Yug for two thousand and Kali Yuga will last for one thousand divine Years that equals to 432,000 earthly years.
It is also believed that three of these great ages have already passed away, and we are now living in the fourth one. We live in the Kali Yuga — in a world infested with impurities and vices. People possessing genial virtues are diminishing day by day. Floods and famine, war and crime, deceit and duplicity characterize this age. But, say the scriptures, final emancipation is possible only in this age. Kali Yuga will end at 21 December 2012 and we will move to Satya Yuga, the Age of Truth.
The four ages symbolize the four phases of involution during which man gradually lost the awareness of his inner selves and subtle bodies. Hinduism believes that human beings have five kinds of bodies, called annamayakosa, pranamayakosa, manomayakosa vignanamayakosa and anandamayakosa, which represent the ‘gross body’, the ‘breath body’, the ‘psychic body’, the ‘intelligence body’ and the ‘bliss body’ respectively.
Another theory explains these epochs of time on the basis of the degree of loss of righteousness in the world. It says, during Satya Yuga only truth prevailed (Sanskrit Satya = truth), Treta lost ¼ truth, Dwapar lost ½ truth and Kali is left with only ¼ truth. Evil and dishonesty has replaced truth in the last three ages or yugas.
Some of the volcanic bluestones in the inner ring of Stonehenge officially match an outcrop in Wales that’s 160 miles (257 kilometers) from the world-famous site, geologists announced this week.
The discovery leaves two big ideas standing about how the massive pieces of the monument arrived at Salisbury Plain: entirely by human hand, or partly by glacier.
As it looks today, 5,000-year-old Stonehenge has an outer ring of 20- to 30-ton sandstone blocks and an inner ring and horseshoe of 3- to 5-ton volcanic bluestone blocks.
The monument’s larger outer blocks, called the Sarsen stones, were likely quarried some 20 to 30 miles (32 to 48 kilometers) away in what’s now England, where sandstone is a common material.
The origin of the bluestones, however, has weighed heavy on the hearts of archaeologists. Rocks resembling the material under a microscope haven’t been found anywhere relatively near Stonehenge—at least until now.
Pinpointing the stones’ origins is crucial to understanding how so many heavy hunks of rock made their way to the open plain where Stonehenge now stands.
“There’s no way of explaining how these stones were transported without knowing where they came from,” said study co-author Robert Ixer of the University of Leicester in the U.K.
In this installment of the Ancient Technology series, join David Hatcher Childress in northern Mexico and the American Southwest as he searches for evidence of high technology in the ancient past. Going to ancient cities, pyramids and megalithic sites, David and his investigative team examine evidence of mind-blowing ancient technology! David and his team check out the ancient cities around the Grand Canyon and the alleged Egyptian catacombs, investigate the ancient concrete canals in central Arizona and continue to the megaliths of the ancient Toltec capital, Tula, and the pyramids at Teotihuacan and end up inside the Great Pyramid of Cholula.
Flying devices are commonplace in many religions, and Hinduism is no exception. According to ancient Sanskrit texts found a few years ago by Westerners in a South Indian temple, Vimanas were open topped flying devices, restricted to the Earth’s atmosphere.
The origin of the word “vimana” can be found in Sanskrit, even though the Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon doesn’t list it:
vimaanam.h: an aircraft, plane
In its original meaning, vimana refers to flying machines, though, of course, not directly to flying saucers. According to Sanskrit literature professor Prof. Dileep Kumar Kanjilal, Ph.D. of the West Bengal Senior Educational Service:
“In addition to the Vaimanika Shashtra, the Samarangana Sutradhara and the Yuktikalpataru of Bhoja, there are about 150 verses of the Rig Veda, Yajurveda and the Atharvaveda, a lot of literary passages belonging to the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Puranas, the Bhagavata and the Raghuvamsa and some references of the darma Abhijnanasakuntalam of Kalidasa, the Abimaraka of Bhasa, the Jatalas. the Avadhana Literature and of the Kathasaritsagara and a number of literary works contained either references to graphic aerial flight or to the mechanism of the aerial vehicles used in old ages in India.”
Reference to flying vehicles occurred in the Mahabharata in about 41 places of which the air attack of Salva on Krisna’s capital Dwaraka deserve special notice.
The first researcher to spot such unusual flying machines was Lord Desmond Leslie, the friend of contactee George Adamski, in the early 1950’s. Leslie not being a true expert of Sanskrit, his work has been criticized. Dr. Roberto Pinotti, an Italian scientist and ufologist, on October 12, 1988 was a speaker in the World Space Conference in Bangalore, India.
He referred to several Hindu texts and pointed out that Indian gods and heroes fought in the skies using piloted vehicles armed with weapons. These weapons consisted of seven different types of mirrors and lenses, which were used for offensive and defensive purposes. The “Pinjula Mirror” offered a form of visual shield, preventing the pilots from “evil rays”, and the weapon named “Marika” was used to shoot enemy aircraft.
Dr. Pinotti declared that these weapons “do not seem to be too different from what we today call laser technology.” The vehicles themselves were made of special heat absorbing metals, called “Somaka, Sound alike and Mourthwika”.
“In the Vedic literature of India, there are many descriptions of flying machines that are generally called vimanas. These fall into two categories:
- manmade craft that resemble airplanes and fly with the aid of birdlike wings
- unstreamlined structures that fly in a mysterious manner and are generally not made by human beings
Mexico’s archaeology institute downplays theories that the ancient Mayas predicted some sort of apocalypse would occur in 2012, but on Thursday it acknowledged that a second reference to the date exists on a carved fragment found at a southern Mexico ruin site.
Most experts had cited only one surviving reference to the date in Mayan glyphs, a stone tablet from the Tortuguero site in the Gulf coast state of Tabasco.
But the National Institute of Anthropology and History said in a statement that there is in fact another apparent reference to the date at the nearby Comalcalco ruin. The inscription is on the carved or molded face of a brick. Comalcalco is unusual among Mayan temples in that it was constructed of bricks.
Arturo Mendez, a spokesman for the institute, said the fragment of inscription had been discovered years ago and has been subject to thorough study. It is not on display and is being kept in storage at the institute.
The “Comalcalco Brick,” as the second fragment is known, has been discussed by experts in some online forums. Many still doubt that it is a definite reference to Dec. 21, 2012 or Dec. 23, 2012, the dates cited by proponents of the theory as the possible end of the world.
“Some have proposed it as another reference to 2012, but I remain rather unconvinced,” David Stuart, a specialist in Mayan epigraphy at the University of Texas at Austin, said in a message to The Associated Press.
Stuart said the date inscribed on the brick “‘is a Calendar Round,’ a combination of a day and month position that will repeat every 52 years.”
The brick date does coincide with the end of the 13th Baktun; Baktuns were roughly 394-year periods and 13 was a significant, sacred number for the Mayas. The Mayan Long Count calendar begins in 3114 B.C., and the 13th Baktun ends around Dec. 21, 2012.
But the date on the brick could also correspond to similar dates in the past, Stuart said.
“There’s no reason it couldn’t be also a date in ancient times, describing some important historical event in the Classic period. In fact, the third glyph on the brick seems to read as the verb huli, “he/she/it arrives.”
“There’s no future tense marking (unlike the Tortuguero phrase), which in my mind points more to the Comalcalco date being more historical that prophetic,” Stuart wrote.
Both inscriptions — the Tortuguero tablet and the Comalcalco brick — were probably carved about 1,300 years ago and both are cryptic in some ways.
The Tortuguero inscription describes something that is supposed to occur in 2012 involving Bolon Yokte, a mysterious Mayan god associated with both war and creation.